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Geosynthetic Liner Materials

Geonets: (Geo-spacers) are formed by a continuous extrusion of parallel sets of polymeric ribs at acute angles to one another.

When the ribs are opened, relatively large apertures are formed into a netlike configuration. Their design function is completely within the drainage area where they have been used to convey fluids of all types.

Geonets uses: As described above Geonets are used almost exclusively for their drainage capability:

  1. Water drainage behind retaining walls and sport fields.

  2. Water drainage of plaza decks and seeping rock slopes.

  3. Water drainage beneath building foundations.

  4. Leachate drainage of landfill side slopes and above landfill liners.

  5. Surface water drainage within landfill caps.

  6. As a drainage blanket beneath a surcharge fill.

Geopipes:  The original Geosynthetic material still available today is buried plastic pipe. The critical nature of leachate collection pipes coupled with high compressive loads makes Geopipe a bona-fide member of the Geosynthetics family.

Geopipes uses: Solid-wall and profile-wall plastic pipe are used in a wide variety of civil engineering applications. Some that come to mind follow:

  1. Highway and railway edge drains and seepage drains in tunnels.

  2. Pore water drains behind retaining walls.

  3. Pipes used in dewatering projects.

  4. Fluid transmission lines by gravity or pressure.

  5. Wastewater drainage systems.

  6. Piping in leach fields of various types.

  7. Primary and secondary leachate removal systems.

  8. Surface water removal systems in landfill covers.

  9. Dredging pipelines.

Geomembranes: Are "impervious" thin sheets of rubber or plastic material used primarily for linings and covers of liquid- or solid-storage facilities, the primary function is always as a liquid or vapor barrier. Geomembranes are relatively impermeability compared to that of competing materials. In the case of seepage containment liners, the competing material is often natural or amended clay, which usually has a targeted hydraulic conductivity (permeability) of approximately 10-7 cm/s.

Geomembranes uses: At least 30 (very great) individual applications in civil engineering have been developed. Uses of Geomembranes in environmental, geotechnical, hydraulic, and transportation activities are listed below:

  1. Liners for potable water, reserve water, water and waste conveyance  canals, waste liquids, radioactive waste liquid, solar ponds, brine solutions and for secondary containment of underground storage tanks.

  2. Liners for primary, secondary, and/or tertiary solid-waste landfills and covers (caps) for solid-waste landfills.

  3. Within cutoff walls for seepage control at hazardous waste sites and within zoned earth dams for seepage control.

  4. Facing of earth and rock-fill dams and within cofferdams for seepage control.

  5. To control odors in landfills, vapors (radon, hydrocarbons, etc.) beneath buildings,  expansive soils.

  6. To shield sinkhole-susceptible areas from flowing water.

  7. To prevent infiltration of water in sensitive areas (i.e. dames).

  8. To act as containment structures for temporary surcharges.

  9. Beneath asphalt overlays as a waterproofing layer.

  10. To correct seepage losses in existing above ground tanks.

Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs): Are rolls of factory fabricated thin layers of Bentonite Clay sandwiched between two Geotextiles or bonded to a Geomembrane. Structural integrity is maintained by needle punching, stitching or physical bonding.

They are seeing use as a composite component beneath a Geomembrane or by themselves as primary or secondary liners. GCLs are indeed hydraulic barrier layers to liquid movement and, as such, are competitive wherever Geomembranes and compacted clay liners are used.

Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCLs) uses: GCLs have found uniqueness in the following applications:

  1. Beneath a Geomembrane in the primary and secondary liner of a landfill and in the cover of a landfill.

  2. Above Geomembranes as puncture protection against coarse gravel.

  3. As a portion of a compacted clay liner in primary and secondary composite liners.

  4. As secondary liners for underground storage tanks.

  5. As single liners for surface impoundments.

  6. Beneath a Geomembrane as a composite liner for surface impoundments and for heap leach ponds.

  7. As single liners for canals.

Geocomposites: A geocomposite consists of a combination of two or more of the three materials, Geomembrane, Geotextile and Geogrid (e.g., deformed plastic sheets, steel cables, or steel anchors).

Geocomposites uses: The application areas are numerous and growing steadily. The major functions encompass the entire range of functions listed for Geosynthetics discussed previously: separation, reinforcement, filtration, drainage, and liquid barrier.



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